Can there be a free lunch for America?

 of UCB has this nice piece in Project Syndicate.

He says long term interest rates are so low in US that government can issue more long term bonds and use the proceeds to invest in infra projects. The projects will then help the ailing economy. Shiller made the same point that govt should actually be taking advantage of record low rates and raise more resources.

The US government can currently borrow for 30 years at a real (inflation-adjusted) interest rate of 1% per year. Suppose that the US government were to borrow an extra $500 billion over the next two years and spend it on infrastructure – even unproductively, on projects for which the social rate of return is a measly 25% per year. Suppose that – as seems to be the case – the simple Keynesian government-expenditure multiplier on this spending is only two.

In that case, the $500 billion of extra federal infrastructure spending over the next two years would produce $1 trillion of extra output of goods and services, generate approximately seven million person-years of extra employment, and push down the unemployment rate by two percentage points in each of those years. And, with tighter labor-force attachment on the part of those who have jobs, the unemployment rate thereafter would likely be about 0.1 percentage points lower in the indefinite future.

The impressive gains don’t stop there. Better infrastructure would mean an extra $20 billion a year of income and social welfare. A lower unemployment rate into the future would mean another $20 billion a year in higher production. And half of the extra $1 trillion of goods and services would show up as consumption goods and services for American households.

Delong says multiplier of only 2, meaning he would think it is higher.  There is so much confusion over the size of the multiplier that you really never know. So many models etc and each one making a different point. When I posed this q to the leading bloggers that how much is the fiscal multiplier, 77% said it was lower or equal to one…Only 21% believed it was greater than 1 and just 2% said it was much more than 1.

Anyways, Delong adds costs and benefits of the exercise show higher benefits:

In sum, on the benefits side of the equation: more jobs now, $500 billion of additional consumption of goods and services over the next two years, and then a $40 billion a year flow of higher incomes and production each year thereafter. So, what are the likely costs of an extra $500 billion in infrastructure spending over the next two years?

For starters, the $500 billion of extra government spending would likely be offset by $300 billion of increased tax collections from higher economic activity. So the net result would be a $200 billion increase in the national debt. American taxpayers would then have to pay $2 billion a year in real interest on that extra national debt over the next 30 years, and then pay off or roll over the entire $200 billion.

The $40 billion a year of higher economic activity would, however, generate roughly $10 billion a year in additional tax revenue. Using some of it to pay the real interest on the debt and saving the rest would mean that when the bill comes due, the tax-financed reserves generated by the healthier economy would be more than enough to pay off the additional national debt.

In other words, taxpayers win, because the benefits from the healthier economy would more than compensate for the costs of servicing the higher national debt, enabling the government to provide more services without raising tax rates.

He says though economics says there is nothing like free lunch. Currently there is for America. Bind investors are paying a huge premium for safety and earning just 1% on bonds when S&P 500 is giving 7% even in these times.

How, you might ask, can I say this? I am an economist – a professor of the Dismal Science, in which there are no free lunches, in which benefits are always balanced by costs, and in which stories that sound too good to be true almost inevitably are.

But there are two things different about today. First, the US labor market is failing so badly that expanded government spending carries no resource cost to society as a whole. Second, bond investors are being really stupid. In a world in which the S&P 500 has a 7% annual earnings yield, nobody should be happy holding a US government 30-year inflation-adjusted bond that yields 1% per year. That six-percentage-point difference in anticipated real yield is a measure of bond investors’ extraordinary and irrational panic. They are willing to pay 6% per year for “safety.”

Right now, however, the US government can manufacture “safety” out of thin air merely by printing bonds. The government, too, would then win by pocketing that 6% per year of value – though 30 years from now, bondholders who feel like winners now would most likely look at their portfolios’ extraordinarily poor performance of over 2011-2041 and rue their strategy.


I am not sure. Say US Treasury announces to borrow a further USD 500 bn. How will markets react seeing the already precarious debt situation of US. One cannot ignore this anymore especially after witnessing seeing how badly the Congress is divided over solving US debt issues. There is just no clarity over how this fiscal mess is going to be sorted over a medium/long term.

So given the current state of play if US does borrow at current yields, it is not just investors but even citizens would look at the poor policies during this period and rue why all this was allowed at the first place. I don’t think it is a free lunch at all..


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