Archive for the ‘Growth and development’ Category

How Pakistan created its Unique identity system?

November 13, 2014

I was completely unaware of this thing called NADRA Card (National Database and Registration Authority) which serves as an identity card for Pakistan people.

This speech by Tariq Malik, former chairman, National Database and Registration Authority is quite a fascinating one. He explains how this idea of unique identity for Pakistan people came about and was then implemented in a vigorous fashion. There are not many poisitive stories from Pakistan but this one looks like quite a successful one. How the identity card eventually got integrated with all kinds of services and also helped in conducting a transparent election in 2013 is quite a story.

There are questions raised on this identity system but the speech is much more than that. It also explains how one goes around developing a good public organisation in countries like Pakistan.

Even more interesting is how NADRA is now doing similar/related projects in other countries as well. So, the quality of work is accepted at an international level as well.

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Is Your Impact Evaluation Asking Questions That Matter? A Four Part Smell Test

November 13, 2014

Prof Lant Pritchett gives his 4 smell tests to figure whether impact evaluators are asking the right questions..

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‘Children of the Wall’: Outcomes for kids born in a crisis

November 11, 2014

Timely piece by Arnaud Chevalier and Olivier Marie. Anything on Berlin Wall is likely to be read at this hour.

In this article, authirs show how children born during the fall are facing several issues:

Children born in crises face different initial conditions. Data on children born in East Germany just after the Berlin Wall came down confirms that this corresponds to worse adult outcomes. ‘Children of the Wall’ have 40% higher arrest rates, are 33% more likely to have repeated a grade by age 12, and are 9% more likely to have been put into a lower educational track. This column argues that these negative outcomes can be explained by the lower average parenting skills of those who decided to have children during a period of high economic uncertainty.

The authors get hold of a survey to tease these relationships:

To explore if these negative outcomes are driven by negative parental characteristics, we make use of very detailed survey data from the German Socio Economic Panel (SOEP) and the Deutsches JungedInstitut survey (DJI). Women who gave birth in East Germany just after the end of the communist regime were on average younger, less educated, less likely to be in a relationship, and less economically active.

Importantly, they also provided less educational input to their children even if they were not poorer. The Children of the Wall also rated their relationships with their mothers and the quality of parental support they received by age 17 much less favourably than their peers. Both these children and their mothers were also far more risky individuals compared with individuals who did not give birth (or were not born) in East Germany between August 1990 and December 1993.

While these results are in line with negative parental selection, they could also be driven by timing-of-birth effects. Due to the economic turmoil prevalent at the time, these children may have experienced higher levels of maternal stress in utero and during early childhood, which may have shaped their future behaviour.

To assess this hypothesis, we examine the same set of outcomes for the older siblings of the Children of the Wall who were born in the non-uncertain times of East German communism. They also similarly report having a poor relationship with their mothers, lower educational attainment, and are more risk-taking individuals. We thus reject the possibility that the Children of the Wall have worse outcomes due to being born in ‘bad times’ and instead conclude that the negative outcomes observed for this cohort can be explained by the lower average parenting skills of those who decided to have children during a period of high economic uncertainty.

A possible reason for this negative parental selection is that the fertility decision of these women did not react as strongly to changes in the economic environment. Indeed, further analysis of the SOEP reveals that less educated mothers were far less likely than more educated ones to reduce their fertility when they perceived a bad economic environment.

:-) Importance of parenting..

Economics of inclusion..

November 10, 2014

Prof Hausmann again. This time he writes on how we can make inclusive growth count.

The central idea is to get the basic infra going:

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25th anniversary of fall of Berlin Wall: How have countries that broke from USSR faring?

November 5, 2014

A superb post by Branko Milanovic, an inequality expert who worked at World Bank (his blog on inequality is really good and promising).

He looks at how these countries are faring and data shows nothing much has happened. The hyped convergence to west has been an illusion for most. Only in case of Poland has some kind of development and convergence happened:

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Home prices since 1870 and why Ricardo seems to have been right..

November 3, 2014

Katharina Knoll, Moritz Schularick and Thomas Steger look at home prices since 1870 in 14 countries.

They show how home prices have risen mostly in the second half of 20th century:

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Book Review — The Gifts of Athena: Historical Origins of the Knowledge Economy

October 31, 2014

What a book by Prof Joel Mokyr of Northwestern Univ. It is a pity that this book is highly recommended for reading even to economics students.

This book says industrial revolution basically happened as there was certain knowledge creation which allowed the revolution to happen. The book is around this process of knowledge creation. How small things added up over a period of time which led to the so called revolution. These small things were added to a super set called Omega (Ω) and how they were applied becomes lambda (λ). The entire book explains how this Omega expanded overtime and then with easier access became part of lambda. Easier access to these technologies made a huge change from the previous episodes where the activity started but could not become a revolution. There was far more investment and application towards sharing and making the knowledge of Omega and Lambda to others.

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Brazil is Belindia – Belgium + India

October 31, 2014

Andres Velasco reflects on the recent Brazil elections. I mean how quickly things turn around. Just three years back, people were praising the outgoing President Lula who had left a strong economy. And now we are discussing how Brazil will fight its recession.

Anyways, Prof. Velasco points to this interesting story. Brazil was named as Belindia by one of its econs 40 years ago:

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How a region once decimated by smallpox and measles became a coffee exporting hub?

October 30, 2014

 

Casey Lurtz, a Business Historian at Harvard Business School discusses her fascinating research on the topic.

She discusses a place in Mexico called Soconusco which was a place of diseases in 1800s and then emerged as a coffee exporting hub at the turn of twentieth century..

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China ..from virtuous cycle to vicious cycle…

October 17, 2014

It is kind of funny to imagine how quickly an economy declines once the whole world (read economists) start praising the growth rates, models etc.  We have seen this across host of countries.

China is one such example. What was once touted as Chinese strength – undervalued currency, limited growth of finance sector, role of government, industrial policy etc. – is becoming its weakness as well.

Keyu Jin of LSE writes on how Chinese have entered the vicious cycle:

Most economists have a reason to be worried about China’s economy – whether it be low consumption and large external surpluses, industrial overcapacity, environmental degradation, or government interventions like capital controls or financial repression. What many fail to recognize is that these are merely the symptoms of a single underlying problem: China’s skewed growth model.

That model is, to some extent, a policy-induced construct, the result of a deep-rooted bias toward construction and manufacturing as the leading drivers of economic development. This predilection harkens back to the Great Leap Forward of the 1950s, when scrap metal was melted to meet wildly optimistic steel-production targets, thereby advancing Mao’s dream of rapid industrialization.

Today, China’s proclivity for industrial production is manifested in large-scale manufacturing and infrastructure projects, encouraged by direct and indirect government subsidies. By boosting investment and generating tax revenue for local governments, this approach has a more immediate positive impact on GDP than efforts to develop the service sector.

But the model also carries considerable costs. Indeed, China is now locked in a vicious economic circle, sustained by seemingly unrelated distortionary policies that are, in fact, deeply interconnected, even symbiotic.

And the story has started in another direction. How convenient economics is really. Argue on both sides with ease.

I have another side of the story. Countries and companies which wish to grow and in a sustained manner should avoid all the hype and buzz. The policy-makers should maintain a low profile and not be too bothered about what the world has to say. The more you avoid all the attention and photo-ops better are the chances for growth and sustenance. But this is so difficult to practice..

Are Services the New Manufactures?

October 14, 2014

Dani Rodrik in his new piece asks this question. His answer is obviously no..

He remains sceptical that services sector can replace the manufacturing space:
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Is economic progress good for society?

September 23, 2014

Jeremy Caradonna Professor of History at the University of Alberta writes this interesting article based on his recent book. I mean one may totally disagree with his view but it should be read.

He questions one of the most important beliefs impressed by econs – importance of econ progress. He questions this idea that industrial revolution has only helped in progress.

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Deep roots or current policies – what drives sustained prosperity differences across locations?

September 19, 2014

One big question for institutional economists. They always believe that institutions matter which can never be disputed. There are some other extremes who say it is the only thing that matters.  So as long as instis are fine, development will prettty much be automatic.

Mercedes Delgado, Christian Ketels, Michael Porter and Scott Stern point to this interesting case of Botswana. It has the instis but current policy has messed up prospects:

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Taking the right lessons from Deng Xiaoping..

September 18, 2014

Minxin Pei of  Claremont McKenna College has this interesting piece on Deng Xiaoping. He is credited as father of China’s economic progress and with many asking to emulate him.  China celebrated his 110th birthday in a quiet manner recently.

Prof. Pei says one should be careful to take lessons from Dengism. He did lead to the economic spurt of China but undermined the political freedom. These are the consequences which are being felt now:

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The modest benefits of entry deregulation in Portugal…

September 18, 2014

. Business press is usually full of pointing the need for the state to just deregulate  and let the invisible hands play their role. The reality is a lot different. Things don;t pan out as there are other issues which have to be resolved as well. Deregulation alone does not help. After some initial spurt, it fizzles out.

Lee Branstetter, Francesco Lima, Lowell Taylor, Ana Venâncio point to such a case from Portugal.

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A historical perspective on Planning Commission…(why keep ignoring Prof. BR Shenoy and others?)

September 15, 2014

EPW’s recent edition (Sep 13) has three articles on the proposed dismantling of Plan Com. I think we just don’t get it that Plan Com really unruffled the former Guj CM who has become the PM. His distaste for economists perhaps must have begun then only considering he has not taken the bait of several econs who pushed to be his adviser.

Anyways,there is still hope amidst few (many actually) that all the agency needs is a revamp and all else shall be fine. And a new name like National Development and Reforms Commission (NDRC) picked of the Chinese counterpart. We can only get as innovative as that. Quoting Shakespeare, “A rose by any other name would smell as sweet.” It does not really matter.

Here are the three pieces:

The one by Prof Nachane deserves a read given it takes this historical perspective on the whole thing.

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What do Indian PM and Indian cricket captain have in common?

September 11, 2014

Superb question from Gyanendra Keshri and equally superb answer — Both have the most important jobs in India. :-)

It is often said that the two most important jobs in India, respectively, are that of two champions: the prime minister and the captain of the national cricket team (number one and two position depends on the individual and perception). Politics and cricket dominate the average Indians psyche. Wherever you go, be it an elite socialite gathering or people sitting at a roadside dhaba or traveling in train or bus, the most common topic of discussion is either politics or cricket.

Then he goes onto compare the two jobs. He points to one lesson but misses an equally important one:

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US economy performs better under Democratic presidents…. Why?

September 5, 2014

Profs Alan S. Blinder and Mark Watson have this interesting post. They say it is always the case that US economy does better under Democratic President compared to Republicans.

Why is this?

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Importance of studying humanities/liberal arts for economic development..

September 3, 2014

Prof. Ned Phelps points to the importance of encouraging students to take up humanities.

He says it is wrong to think of bridging education gap via  education in STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) courses:

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Time for India to use its soft powers in China…

September 2, 2014

Prof Vaidyanathan of IIMB has this interesting post on how India can widen its base in China (and other places as well).

First he says China’s ascendancy is not just about economics. There is a huge role of culture and religion as well:

The major change that is taking place in China is not related to their growth rates and Three Gorges Dam and the shopping malls and Olympics stadia. That is a typical Western way of viewing China. The main change is in religious affiliation and assertion of Islamic followers and development of large scale underground Church. The middle classes have given up rice [perceived to be for the illiterate poor] and are embracing Christianity since it also helps in job mobility particularly in global companies where the heads could belong to the same Church. The Muslim population is less dispersed and more concentrated in specific locations like western part But there is also a growing interest in China about its past. The Ming dynasty tombs in Beijing which are made in marble were painted in red color during the great cultural revolution of the sixties and even today laborers are washing it to make it back in to white color without success. The guides are not reluctant to talk about it. The ten handed Buddha in the Summer Palace of Ching dynasty near Beijing has significant relationship with our idea of Lord Vishnu who destroys evil and even this is mentioned clearly. More importantly, China is opening what are called Confucius Institutes in more than fifty countries which is similar to British Council efforts but more focused on China’s ancient wisdom. . The first thing we should learn is to stop looking at China with Western glasses.

The economic boom in China has given rise to issues related to their faith/religion and associated things. First and foremost, China is facing a severe separatist [called splitters by Chinese] in their western region namely Xinjiang by Uighurs. The region is populated by followers of Islam religion and seeing unrest for the past two decades. But recently it has reached violent proportions. For instance, early last week Chinese claimed that at least 100 have been killed in disturbances in that region2. Not only that, some portion of the Uighurs has carried the battle to Beijing itself. In other words, one form of regional separation combined with Islamic terrorism has become a major problem in China. There are also reports that the Islamists are taking shelter in the Pakistan occupied Kashmir (PoK).

On the other hand, China is also waging a battle with “unrecognized” Church in its territory. Once a hub of Christianity, worshippers in Wenzhou fear their faith is facing its biggest threat since the Cultural Revolution3. The recent visit of the Pope to South Korea as part of his engaging Asia has fuelled concerns in China since China has its own church and does not recognize Papal authority.

“By my calculations China is destined to become the largest Christian country in the world very soon,” said Fenggang Yang, a professor of sociology at Purdue University and author of Religion in China: Survival and Revival under Communist Rule.4 But for China, both the Abrahamic religions are alien to its culture going back several thousand years. So they are trying to revive “Confucianism” by encouraging the study of it as we’ll as opening several centers to propagate it. Buddhism is their ancient religion and Hindu influences are significant.

So what should India do?

Thus, a significant change that is taking place in China pertains to religion. The economic growth bereft of spiritual underpinnings in the context of death of Marxism is going to be a great challenge for China and India as an elder brother should facilitate orderly transformation based on our common shared ancient wisdom. Let us remember that China is also a multi-cultural and multi religious society but interested in our shared past. In the words of Hu Shih, former Ambassador of China to USA [1938-1942] “India conquered and dominated China culturally for 20 centuries without having to send a single soldier across her borders.”Ship loads of Sanskrit and Pali original works taken away by Chiang-Kai-Shek from mainland to Taiwan bear testimony to it. These are exhibited in the Taipei museum even today.

Hence, India should be sending Sri Sri Ravishankar/Mata Amirtanandamayi / Swami Ramdev/ Pramukh Swami/Sankaracharyas/Vaishnavite Seers and other spiritual leaders, Bharatha Natyam experts, musicians, other artists in hundreds to China to “ Conquer and Dominate” by our soft power. We need to print millions of copies of Ramayana and Mahabharata and our Puranas and Gita and Jataka stories in all modern Chinese languages and widely make them available. The CDs of Mahabharata and Ramayana etc. can also be given free. We should start some fifty Bharatiya Vidya Bhavans in China. Actually China needs this more than USA even though all our soft power is currently on show in the USA. We should create a fund of at least Rs.1000 crore for this effort. There is a statue of Kalidasa in the Shanghai theatre unveiled by the theater academy. I do not think of any metro in India including the so called “cultural capital” Kolkata, having a statue of Kalidasa. At Kolkata, the Theatre street became Shakespeare Sarani and not Kalidasa Marg!

We should strategically recognize the weak point of China and also the need of its masses in the absence of Communism. Many a Chinese even today believe that their next birth should be in India to reach salvation. Culture and religion are not taboos any more.

….The strategy should be to envelop China with music, dance, art, Yoga. Ayurveda, spiritual texts like Ithihasas, Gita, Puranas etc and capture the hearts of the middle classes as we have done for centuries.

The second issue is related to our own mind-set. We tend to look at China either through the Western spectacles or through local Marxist spectacles—which have more thick glasses. We need to come out of it. Even when invitations come to Indian spiritual leaders, the Government of India remains unenthusiastic and indicates its dis-interest in the false assumptions regarding China’s political orientation. The policy formulators are still living in the sixties and seventies while as China is undergoing a gigantic social crisis due to material prosperity and spiritual vacuum. Unfortunately, as a Chinese colleagueof mine at Shanghai University commented last year, “both our countries are ruled by rootless deracinated foreign educated wonders that do not have any idea of the civilizational roots or the cultural richness of our lands.” Hopefully now it should have changed!!

China is enthusiastically waiting. To quote late B K S Iyengar, the doyen of yoga, “Mr. Iyengar told The Hindu during a visit to Beijing that he saw China as a future home for yoga. When he travelled to Guangzhou to give a lecture, he was stunned to find that organisers had rented out a stadium – more than 1,300 students had come to listen to him”.8

Have not really read anything on this. So can’t say.

But yes why send all this culture and music to China? We should first encourage and promote it in India.  How many of today’s youth identifies with Indian music/culture/historic texts? Most of us are far well versed with western literature and stories than Indian ones. We should promote  and encourage our children to know about all these really important Indian things. Unless we develop expertise here and have large numbers knowing the game, we shall not be able to sustain this export of soft powers.


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